P-700 Granit - WikiMili, The Best Wikipedia Reader (2024)

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P-700Granit
(NATO reporting name: SS-N-19 'Shipwreck')
P-700 Granit - WikiMili, The Best Wikipedia Reader (2)
TypeLong-range anti-ship cruise missile
Surface or submarine launched
Placeoforigin Soviet Union/Russia
Service history
InserviceSince 1983
UsedbySoviet Union, Russia
Production history
DesignerOKB-52/NPO Mashinostroyeniya, Vladimir Chelomey
Designed1970s
Produced1985–1992
Specifications
Mass7,000kg (15,400lb)
Length10m (33ft)
Diameter0.85m (33in)
Warhead High explosive or nuclear
Warheadweight750kg (1,653lb)
Blastyield500 kt
Engine turbojet and ramjet probable

Operational
range

625km (388mi) [1]
Maximum speed Mach 1.6 (low altitude)
Mach 2.5+ (high altitude)

Guidance
system

Inertial guidance, active radar homing with home-on-jam, and Legenda satellite targeting system (believed to be nonfunctional after the fall of the USSR)

Launch
platform

Oscar-class submarines
Kirov-class battlecruiser & Kuznetsov-class aircraft carrier

The P-700 Granit (Russian : П-700 "Гранит"; English: granite ) is a Soviet and Russian naval anti-ship cruise missile. Its GRAU designation is 3M45, its NATO reporting name SS-N-19 Shipwreck. It comes in surface-to-surface and submarine-launched variants, and can also be used against ground targets. [2] [3]

Contents

  • Design and building
  • Deployment
  • P-1000 Vulkan deployment
  • Substitution in 2018
  • Operators
  • See also
  • References
  • External links

Design and building

The P-700 was designed in the 1970s to replace the P-70 Ametist and P-120 Malakhit, both effective missiles but with too short a range in the face of improving weapons of U.S. Navy carrier battle groups. The missile was partially derived from the P-500 Bazalt.

Built by Chelomei/NPO Mashinostroenia, the bulging 10m missile has swept-back wings and tail, weighs around 7,000 kilograms and can be fitted with either a 750kg HE warhead, a FAE warhead, or a 500 kt thermonuclear warhead. A stubby cylindrical solid-fuel rocket is fitted to the rear for launch; this booster stage is released when the missile enters sustained flight. For many years it was believed that this missile used a turbojet engine during the sustained flight; after Russian and Western media gained access to its performance characteristics, it was understood that its propulsion system was a ramjet. [4] [5]

The P-700 has a distinctive annular air intake in the nose. Maximum speed is believed to be between Mach 1.6 and Mach 2.5. [6] Range has been estimated at 400km, [7] 500km, [3] and 550–625km. [8] The guidance system is mixed-mode, with inertial guidance, terminal active radar homing guidance and also anti-radar homing. Mid-course correction is probable.

It is widely claimed that the missile, when fired in a swarm (group of 4–8) has a unique guidance mode. One of the weapons climbs to a higher altitude and designates targets while the others attack. The missile responsible for target designation climbs in short pop-ups, so as to be harder to intercept. The missiles are linked by data connections, forming a network. If the designating missile is destroyed the next missile will rise to assume its purpose. Missiles are able to differentiate targets, detect groups and prioritize targets automatically using information gathered during flight and types of ships and battle formations pre-programmed in an onboard computer. They will attack targets in order of priority, highest to lowest: after destroying the first target, any remaining missiles will attack the next prioritized target. [9] [10] Such description received some doubts. [11] The missile has a means of countering the attacking anti-missiles. Also, the on-board computer carries data designed to counter an enemy's electronic warfare and to evade counter-measures. [12] [13]

The P-700 was derived from the P-500 Bazalt missile with a turbojet. [14] [ inconsistent ] The P-700 was in turn developed into the P-800 Oniks, which uses ramjet propulsion, and the BrahMos missile, a joint Indian/Russian modernization of the P-800.

Deployment

P-700 Granit - WikiMili, The Best Wikipedia Reader (3)

Initial deployment was aboard the cruiser Kirov (now the Admiral Ushakov) in 1980 and the missile entered service on 19 July 1983. [12]

Unusually for an aircraft carrier, the Kuznetsov-class also carried 12 Granit launchers. This gave the Admiral Kuznetsov an additional primary attack capability, [15] but also had the political advantage of classing the vessel as an aircraft cruiser instead. [lower-roman 1] Unconfirmed reports say that the missiles were removed in 2000, to provide more aircraft hangar space.

P-700 Granit - WikiMili, The Best Wikipedia Reader (4)

It is currently in service with the Russian Northern Fleet on the Kirov-class battlecruisers Admiral Nakhimov and Pyotr Velikyi , and with the Russian Northern and Pacific fleets as the main weapon of the Oscar-class cruise missile submarines.

The Kursk carried 24 missiles when it sank following a torpedo explosion during an exercise on 12 August 2000. The Russian navy was extremely concerned about possible NATO attempts to recover a missile and guarded the site of the wreck throughout the recovery effort. The missiles were recovered intact following a $65million salvage operation. [16] [17] [18] [19]

The size of the missile limits the platforms on which it can operate and be launched from. [20] It has only been deployed from Oscar-class submarines, Kirov-class battlecruisers, and the Admiral Kuznetsov aircraft carrier. Ships of all three types will have their Granit missiles replaced with new launch cells to carry smaller Oniks and Kalibr [21] cruise missiles in greater numbers.

P-1000 Vulkan deployment

The P-1000 missile was partially derived from the P-500 and P-700. [22] [23] [24] Its maximum speed is claimed to be between Mach 1.5 - Mach 2.5 depending on altitude, and its range is claimed to be between 700 and 1000km (800). [25] Warhead: 500kg. Years of production 1985–1992. [26] The body of the missile resembles that of the P-500, but it has the ability of the P-700 to overcome defensive countermeasures. Long range missile can achieve the target only at low altitudes (up to 25 meters or lower) approximation (in which case the maximum range is less than 500km).

Substitution in 2018

Officially - are being replaced by the Zircon (missile). [27]

Operators

Current operator
  • P-700 Granit - WikiMili, The Best Wikipedia Reader (5) Russia
    • P-700 Granit - WikiMili, The Best Wikipedia Reader (6) Russian Navy
Former operators
  • P-700 Granit - WikiMili, The Best Wikipedia Reader (7) Soviet Union
    • P-700 Granit - WikiMili, The Best Wikipedia Reader (8) Soviet Navy

See also

  • List of missiles
  • List of NATO reporting names for surface-to-surface missiles

Related Research Articles

P-700 Granit - WikiMili, The Best Wikipedia Reader (9)

A cruise missile is an unmanned self-propelled guided vehicle that sustains flight through aerodynamic lift for most of its flight path and whose primary mission is to place an ordnance or special payload on a target. Cruise missiles are designed to deliver a large warhead over long distances with high precision. Modern cruise missiles are capable of traveling at high subsonic, supersonic, or hypersonic speeds, are self-navigating, and are able to fly on a non-ballistic, extremely low-altitude trajectory.

P-700 Granit - WikiMili, The Best Wikipedia Reader (10)

A missile is an airborne ranged weapon capable of self-propelled flight aided usually by a propellant, jet engine or rocket motor.

P-700 Granit - WikiMili, The Best Wikipedia Reader (11)

K-141 Kursk was an Oscar II-class nuclear-powered cruise missile submarine of the Russian Navy. On 12 August 2000, K-141 Kursk was lost when it sank in the Barents Sea, killing all 118 personnel on board.

P-700 Granit - WikiMili, The Best Wikipedia Reader (12)

The Oscar class, Soviet designations Project 949 Granit and Project 949A Antey, are a series of nuclear-powered cruise missile submarines designed in the Soviet Union for the Soviet Navy. First built in the 1970s, six remain in service with the Russian Navy. Two other vessels were slated to be modernized since at least 2017 as Project 949AM, to extend their service life and increase combat capabilities but it is unclear whether work continues as of 2023.

P-700 Granit - WikiMili, The Best Wikipedia Reader (13)

The Kuznetsov-class aircraft carrying cruiser, Soviet designation Project 1143.5, is a class of STOBAR aircraft carriers operated by the Russian and Chinese navies. Originally designed for the Soviet Navy, the Kuznetsov-class ships use a ski-jump for launching high-performance jet aircraft and arrestor gears for landing. The design represented a maj

P-700 Granit - WikiMili, The Best Wikipedia Reader (2024)
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